Gradient

Toxic Torts

Overview
Example Projects
Experts

Overview

In legal cases involving health claims and chemical exposure, clients engage Gradient because of our in-depth chemical-specific knowledge, technically sound quantitative analysis, and strong track record of providing scientifically credible testimony in understandable terms. Our specialized knowledge and extensive research resources frequently play pivotal roles in these cases. Areas of particular expertise that we offer include toxicological and epidemiological causation, dose reconstruction (including historical), alternative chemical effects, chemical source identification, historical knowledge of toxicology, and disease cluster evaluation.

courtroom

Example Projects

Historical Toxicology and Industry Practice

Full Description

Gradient analyzed company and trade association documents and public scientific literature spanning several decades addressing a widely used industrial chlorinated compound. Our analyses focused on changes in the rigor of animal testing and how industry and regulators weighed the significance of animal data to assess human health risks.

PCB Fingerprinting

Full Description

Gradient evaluated the historical operations involving PCB use in hydraulic fluids and discharges in process wastewater at a major manufacturing facility. We evaluated the basis for the health-based PCB cleanup levels in soils and sediments, including assessing the PCB congener fingerprint relative to background congener patterns and dioxin-like TEQs.

Evaluation of Chemical in Children's Toy

Full Description

Gradient assessed whether a toxicological evaluation of a toy was sufficient for determining children's health risks. We analyzed potential routes of exposure to and toxicity of a chemical found in the toy, as well as evidence that such exposure could have resulted in neurodevelopmental effects in a particular individual.

Lead Exposure Class Certification

Full Description

Gradient evaluated factors contributing to variability in exposure to lead in drinking water and consequent potential health effects. We considered the potential impact of lead in drinking water compared to other sources of lead exposure and evaluated the importance of other risk factors for health effects.

Cancer Cluster Analysis

Full Description

Gradient evaluated the state of knowledge regarding possible associations between exposure to benzene, dioxins, and pentachlorophenol and a range of cancer and non-cancer health claims in individuals living near a former manufacturing facility. We also assessed possible exposures and conducted a cluster analysis to determine whether the disease rate was higher than expected.

Experts

Barbara D. Beck Read Bio

Teresa S. Bowers Read Bio

David G. Dodge Read Bio

Julie E. Goodman Read Bio

Cynthia J. Langlois Read Bio

David E. Langseth Read Bio

Tom A. Lewandowski Read Bio

Christopher M. Long Read Bio

Michael K. Peterson Read Bio