Service Area

Product Liability

In legal cases involving health claims and chemical exposure from consumer or other manufactured products, clients engage Gradient because of our in-depth, chemical-specific knowledge; technically sound quantitative analysis; and strong track record of providing scientifically credible testimony in understandable terms.  Our specialized knowledge and extensive research resources frequently play pivotal roles in these cases.  Our areas of particular expertise include toxicological and epidemiological causation, dose reconstruction (including historical), alternative chemical effects, chemical source identification, historical knowledge of toxicology, and disease cluster evaluation.

Sample Projects

Evaluation of a Chemical in a Children’s Toy

Gradient assessed whether a toxicological evaluation of a toy was sufficient for determining its health risks to children.  We analyzed potential routes of exposure to and toxicity of a chemical found in the toy, as well as evidence that such exposure could have resulted in neurodevelopmental effects in a particular individual.

Weight-of-Evidence Causation Evaluation

Gradient has performed causation evaluations for a variety of different chemicals in a legal context.  These evaluations typically consider evidence from a variety of different lines of evidence, often including animal toxicology, epidemiology, exposure, and mechanism-of-action studies.  Examples of chemicals that Gradient has evaluated in this fashion include bisphenol-A, methanol, trichloroethylene, diesel exhaust, asbestos, talc, etc.

Product Recall Case Involving Plastic Mug Inserts

Gradient assessed potential exposures to chemicals leaching from plastic mug inserts and advised the client on the scientific merits of a product recall.

Assessment of Side Effects of Pharmaceutical Agent

Gradient conducted a peer review of published scientific literature, including epidemiology studies, to assess whether side effects could have been anticipated from existing studies.

Evaluation of Steroid Adulteration Claims in Dietary Supplement

In separate lawsuits brought by a National Football League (NFL) player and an Olympic athlete, Gradient designed and conducted a forensic testing program to determine the presence and source of anabolic steroids in a dietary supplement.

Our Team